Yes. We observed air pollution levels concurrently with the direct observation of active smoking at different smoker distances and wind speeds. Therefore, our results are generalizable to many other outdoor situations where people smoke. Our results can be used to reliably understand potential exposures to outdoor tobacco smoke pollution in typical locations in any city locale where people tend to congregate -- including parks, sidewalks, restaurants, etc. People in cities and towns around the world can benefit from the findings of our study.